Epson Apex 200 Download Manual

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Comments :Please list the software and any hardware you are using with your computer:Name:Title:Company:Address: City:State:Please cut out and mail in. Thank you!
EPSON
Zip:PLACE
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HERE
EPSON America, Inc.
2780 Lomita Blvd.
Torrance, CA 90505
M S 4-1
Fold HereIMPORTANT NOTICE

Epson America makes no representations or warranties, either express orimplied, by or with respect to anything in this manual, and shall not beliable for any implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for aparticular purpose or for any indirect, special, or consequential damages.
Some states do not allow the exclusion of incidental or consequentialdamages, so this exclusion may not apply to you.
COPYRIGHT NOTICE
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, storedin a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without theprior written permission of Epson America, Inc. No patent liability isassumed with respect to the use of information contained herein. Whileevery precaution has been taken in the preparation of this publication,
Epson America assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions. Nor is anyliability assumed for damages resulting from the use of the informationcontained herein. Further, this publication and the features described hereinare subject to change without notice.
TRADEMARKS
ActionPrinter and Apex are trademarks of Epson America, Inc.
Epson is a registered trademark of Seiko Epson Corporation.
Hercules is a registered trademark of Hercules Computer Technology, Corp.
IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corp.
Intel is a registered trademark of Intel Corp.
MS-DOS and Microsoft are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corp.
XTREE is a registered trademark of Executive Systems, Inc.
Copyright 1989 by Epson America, Inc.
Torrance, California Y16299100600FCC COMPLIANCE STATEMENT FOR AMERICAN USERS
This equipment generates and uses radio frequency energy and if not installed andused properly, that is, in strict accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, maycause interference to radio and television reception. It has been type tested andfound to comply with the limits for a Class B computing device in accordance withthe specifications in Subpart J of Part 15 of FCC Rules, which are designed toprovide reasonable protection against such interference in a residential installation.
However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particularinstallation. If this equipment does cause interference to radio and televisionreception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, you areencouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the followingmeasures:Reorient the receiving antenna

Relocate the computer with respect to the receiver

Move the computer away from the receiver

Plug the computer into a different outlet so that the computer and receiver areon different branch circuits.
If necessary, consult your dealer or an experienced radio/television technician foradditional suggestions. You may find the following booklet prepared by the Federal
Communications Commission helpful:“Television Interference Handbook.”
This booklet is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington,
DC 20402. Stock No. 004-000-00450-7.
Note: If the interference stops, it was probably caused by the computer or itsperipheral devices. To further isolate the problem: Disconnect the peripheral devicesand their input/output cables one at a time. If the interference stops, it is caused byeither the peripheral device or its I/O cable. These devices usually require shielded
I/O cables. For Epson peripheral devices, you can obtain the proper shielded cablefrom your dealer. For non-Epson peripheral devices contact the manufacturer ordealer for assistance.
WARNING: This equipment has been certified to comply with the limits for a
Class B computing device, pursuant to Subpart J of Part 15 of FCC Rules. Onlyperipherals (computer input/output devices, terminals, printers, etc.) certified tocomply with the Class B limits may be attached to this computer. Operation withnon-certified peripherals is likely to result in interference to radio and TVreception. The connection of a non-shielded equipment interface cable to thisequipment will invalidate the FCC Certification of this device and may causeinterference levels that exceed the limits established by the FCC for thisequipment.
This digital apparatus does not exceed the Class A/ Class B (whichever is applicable)limits for radio noise emissions from digital apparatus as set out in the radiointerference regulations of the Canadian Department of Communications.
Le present appareil numérique n’émet pas de bruits radioelectriques dépassant leslimites applicables aux appareils numériques de Classe A/de Classe B (selon le cas)prescrites dans le règlement sur le brouillage radioelectriques édicté par le Ministèredes Communications du Canada.iiiContents
Introduction.. ...........
1
How to Use This Manual
........... 2
Where to Get Help
........ 3
Chapter 1 Setting Up Your System
1 Unpacking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Removing the Diskette Drive Protector Card
.........
1-3
2 Choosing a Location.
........... 1-4
3 Connecting a Monitor
........... 1-5
4 Connecting a Printer, Mouse, or Modem.
......... 1-7
Using the Parallel Interface
.......... 1-8
Using the Serial Interface.
........... 1-9
5 Connecting the Power Cord
............ 1-11
6 Connecting the Keyboard.
.............
1 - 12
Adjusting the Keyboard Angle.
....... 1-14
7 Setting the Front Monitor Switch
....... 1-14
8 Turning On the Computer
............. 1-15
The Command Prompt
............. 1-18
9 Copying System Diskettes
............. 1-18
Chapter 2 Running the Setup Program
Changing the Amount of Memory. ........ 2-3
Setting the Type of Display. ......... 2-4
Adding an 80287 Coprocessor ............ 2-6
Changing the Disk Drive Settings ......... 2-7
Setting the Real-time Clock. ............. 2-8
Leaving the Setup Program .......... 2-10
Contents vChapter 3 Using Your Computer
Changing the Operating Speed
........... 3-1
Special Keys on the Apex Keyboard.
....... 3-2
Stopping a Command or Program
......... 3-4
Resetting the Computer
...........
3-5
Turning Off the Computer
.......... 3-6
Using Disks and Disk Drives.
............. 3-6
How Disks Store Data
......... 3-6
Types of Diskette Drives.
............ 3-8
Caring for Diskettes and Diskette Drives.
............ 3-10
Inserting and Removing Diskettes.
........... 3-12
Write-protecting Diskettes.
.......... 3-14
Making Backup Copies
......... 3-15
Using a Single Diskette Drive
........ 3-16
Using the Hard Disk Drive
........... 3-17
Chapter 4 Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
Starting and Exiting MS-DOS
............ 4-2
Loading MS-DOS From a Diskette
........... 4-2
Starting an Application Program
..........
4-3
Using Drive Designators
...........
4-3
The Default Drive.
........... 4-4
Changing the Default Drive.
......... 4-4
Specifying the Drive Designator
...... 4-5
Types of MS-DOS Commands
............ 4-5
Entering an MS-DOS Command
.......... 4-7
Creating and Managing Files
.............
4-9
Naming Files. ....... 4-9
Copying Files
........ 4-10
Renaming Files ....... 4-13
Deleting Files
........ 4-14
Printing Files.
........ 4-15Using Directories.
.........
4-16
The Default Directory
......... 4-18
Changing the Default Directory.
...... 4-18
Using Pathname
......
4-19
Including Filenames With Pathnames. ......... 4-20
Including Drive Letters With
Pathnames and Filenames ........ 4-20
Creating Directories
........... 4-22
Listing the Contents of a Directory ........... 4-23
Displaying a List of Directories ....... 4-24
Removing Directories, ......... 4-25
Formatting Diskettes.
...... 4-26
Formatting Diskettes With
One Diskette Drive (No Hard Disk) ............. 4-28
Backing Up Data.
......... 4-29
Using the DISKCOPY Command ............ 4-29
Using the BACKUP Command.
...... 4-33
Using HELP.
......... . 4-34
Using MENU.
......... 4-36
MENU Program Options ............ 4-36
Using the XTREE Utility
........... 4-37
Running XTREE.
............ 4-38
Using an AUTOEXEC.BAT File .......... 4-41
Creating an AUTOEXEC.BAT File .......... 4-42
Using HDCACHE for the Hard Disk.
...... 4-44
Chapter 5 Installing Option Cards
Removing the Cover. ...... 5-1
Inserting the Option Card .......... 5-4
Jumper Settings ........... 5-7
Changing a Jumper Setting .......... 5-8
Memory Card Jumpers ......... 5-8
Main Circuit Board Jumpers. ......... 5-10
Multi-function Card Jumpers. ........ 5-12
Removing an Option Card .......... 5-15
Replacing the Cover ....... 5-16
Post-installation Setup ............ 5-18
Contents viiChapter 6 Troubleshooting
The Computer Won’t Start
......... 6-1
The Computer Does Not Respond
......... 6-2
Keyboard Problems
........ 6-3
Monitor Problems
......... 6-4
Diskette Problems
......... 6-5
Diskette Drive Problems
........... 6-8
Hard Disk Problems.
....... 6-9
Software Problems
......... 6-11
Printer Problems
.......... 6- 12
Option Card Problems
............ 6- 13
Appendix A Specifications
CPU and Memory
......... A-1
Controllers.
........... A- 1
Interfaces
...... A-2
Power Supply.
......... A-2
Mass Storage
.......... A-2
Keyboard.. .........
.. A- 3
Environmental Requirements.
............ A-4
Physical Characteristics (CPU only)
....... A-4
Power Requirements
....... A-4
Video and Display Options.
......... A-4
Other Apex Options
....... A-5
Monitors
......... A-5
ActionPrinters by Epson
............ A-5
ActionPrinter Accessories
........... A-6
Computer Accessories
......... A-7
Parallel Port Pin Assignments.
............ A-7
Serial Port Pin Assignments
......... A-8
Keyboard Connector Pin Assignments.
............ A-8
Parallel Port Loop-back Connector Pin Assignments
....... A-9
Serial Port Loop-back Connector Pin Assignments.
........ A-9Appendix B Power-on Diagnostics
System Device Check
...... B-1
Timer and CMOS RAM Check.
.......... B-2
RAM Check
.......... B-3
Keyboard Controller and Keyboard Check
......... B-3
Display Card Check
....... B-4
Optional RAM Check
............ B-4
Diskette Drive Seek Check.
......... B-4
Hard Disk Controller and Hard Disk Check
......... B-5
Appendix C Performing System Diagnostics
Starting System Diagnostics ......... C-1
Modifying the DEVICE LIST. ............ C-3
Selecting a Test. .......... C-5
Resuming From an Error. ............ C-6
System Board Check ....... C-7
Memory Check ........... C-8
Keyboard Check ........... C-8
Monochrome Display Adapter and CRT Check ........... C- 10
Monochrome Adapter Check ........ C- 11
Attribute Check ...... C-11
Character Set Check .......... C-12
Video Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C-12
Sync Check . . . ............ C-13
Run All Above Checks ............. C-13
Color Graphics Display Adapter and CRT Check ......... C-13
Color Graphics Adapter Check ....... C-14
Attribute Check ...... C- 15
Character Set Check .......... C-15
40-column Character Set Check ...... C-16
320x200 Graphics Mode Check. ...... C- 17
640x200 Graphics Mode Check. ...... C- 17
Screen Paging Check .......... C- 18
Light Pen Check...... C-19
Color Video Check. ........... C-20
Sync Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-20
Run All Above Checks ............. C-20
Contents ixFloppy Disk Drives and Controller Check
..........C-21
Sequential Seek Check
.............
C-22
Random Seek Check
..........C-22
Write, Read Check.
...........C-23
Speed Check.
........ C-23
Disk Change Check
...........C-24
Run All Above Checks
.............C-25
Math Coprocessor Check (80287)
.........C-25
Parallel Port (Printer Interface) Check
............C-25
Parallel Port (on Video Adapter) Check
...........C-26
Serial Port (RS-232C) Check
.............C-27
Alternate Serial Port Check.
.............C-28
Dot-matrix Printer Check.
..........C-28
Hard Disk Drives and Controller Check
...........C-30
Seek Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-30
Write, Read Check.
...........C-31
Head Select Check.
...........C-32
Error Detection and Correction Check.
.............C-32
Read, Verify Check
...........C-33
Run All Above Checks
.............C-33
Error Codes and Messages
...........C-34
Appendix D Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
Formatting and Checking Options.........D- 1
Reformatting a Used Disk...........D-3
Formatting a New Disk .........D-4
Starting the Formatting Process.......D-4
Conditional Format (Normal)............D-5
Unconditional Format ............D-7
Destructive Surface Analysis .........D- 10
Non-destructive Surface Analysis..........D- 11Appendix E Preparing a Hard Disk for Use
Partitioning the Hard Disk
.......... E-2
Creating the MS-DOS Partition.
.......... E-3
Creating the Extended Partition.
.......... E-4
Formatting the Primary Partition
.......... E-6
Formatting the Extended Partition.
........ E-8
Copying the Remaining Files to the Hard Disk
............ E-9
Creating the AUTOEXEC.BAT File.
...... E-10
Appendix F Types of Hard Disk Drives
Disk Type Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . F-1
Glossary
Index
Contents xiIntroduction
Your Apex’” personal computer is powerful, versatile, and easyto use. After setting up your system with the simple instructionsin this manual, you’ll soon be using your favorite softwareprograms.
The Apex 200 computer is available in these configurations:The Apex 200\20 provides one 1.2MB (megabyte)diskette drive and one 20MB hard disk drive
The Apex 200\40 provides one 1.2MB diskette drive andone 40MB hard disk drive.
Both models come with 640KB (kilobyte) of internal memory,a total of six internal option slots, an MGA (multi-graphicsadapter) card, and built-in serial and parallel interfaces. Youcan connect either a monochrome or color graphics monitor tothe MGA card in the computer.
Your computer comes with version 3.3 of MS-DOS

- theoperating system by Microsoft? In addition to the introductionto MS-DOS provided in this manual, you’ll find a completereference manual for the operating system packed in the boxwith the computer.
As a supplement to MS-DOS, Epson has included several time-saving utilities that make MS-DOS easier to use: HELP,
MENU, and XTREE? The HELP program lets you displayinformation on the screen about any MS-DOS command.
MENU provides an easier way to run many of the mostcommon MS-DOS commands. XTREE is a file managementutility that simplifies all file and directory operations; it isespecially useful for managing data on a hard disk.
As your needs grow, so can your computer; you can expandyour system by adding a wide variety of options. You can installmost option cards compatible with the IBM

Personal
Introduction 1Computer. For example, you can add an internal modem cardto provide data communications. If you use software thatexecutes lengthy mathematical calculations, you may want toinstall an 80287 math coprocessor to speed up processing.
How to Use This Manual
This manual explains how to set up and care for your computer.
It also describes how to use your computer and run diagnosticchecks. The instructions in this manual apply to both the
Apex 200\20 and Apex 200\40, except where otherwiseindicated.
You probably don’t need to read everything in this book; seethe following chapter summaries.
Chapter 1 provides simple step-by-step instructions for settingup your computer. On the back cover foldout are illustrationsidentifying the different parts of the computer; you may wantto refer to this while you are setting up your system.
Chapter 2 describes how to run the Setup program to set upyour computer’s configuration.
Chapter 3 covers some general operating procedures, includinghow to use and care for your disks and disk drives.
Chapter 4 provides basic instructions for using MS-DOS withyour computer.
Chapter 5 describes how to install option cards in yourcomputer.
Chapter 6 contains troubleshooting tips in case you encounterany problems while using your computer.
Appendix A gives the technical specifications for the
Apex 200\20 and Apex 200\40.
Appendix B provides information on the power-on diagnostics.Appendix C outlines the system diagnostic checks you canperform on your computer. If you are having trouble with anypart of the hardware, you may want to run some of thesediagnostic checks.
Appendix D describes how to perform a low-level format onthe hard disk. You need to do this only if you are having seriousproblems with the hard disk in your computer or if you haveinstalled a new hard disk that has not received this type offormat. (This is not the same type of format provided by the
MS-DOS FORMAT command.)
Appendix E explains how to prepare a new hard disk for use.
You need to follow these instructions only if you have installeda new hard disk in your computer or if you need to repartitionor reformat the one you have been using.
Appendix F lists the types of hard disks you can use in yourcomputer. You need to enter information from this table whenyou run the Setup program after installing an additional harddisk.
At the back of the manual you’ll find a glossary of thecomputer terms used in this manual and an index.
Where to Get Help
Customer service for Epson products is provided by a networkof authorized Epson Customer Care Centers throughout the
United States. Call the Epson Consumer Information Center at
1-800-922-8911 for the following:Customer Care Center referrals
Technical support referrals
Information on Epson User Groups.
To locate or purchase accessories or supplies, contact yournearest Epson dealer or call 1-800-873-7766.
Introduction 3Chapter 1
Setting Up Your System
Setting up your Apex personal computer is easy. Just followthe nine steps in this chapter. You may want to leave the backcover foldout of this book open so you can refer to the twoillustrations identifying the different parts of the computer.
Note Note
If you have experience setting up computers, you may prefer If you have experience setting up computers, you may preferto follow the brief instructions on the Read This First card to follow the brief instructions on the Read This First cardincluded with this manual. (Turn to this chapter if you have included with this manual. (Turn to this chapter if you haveany questions, and for instructions on copying your system any questions, and for instructions on copying your systemdiskettes.) diskettes.)
When you finish setting up your computer, go on to Chapter 2and follow the instructions there to run the Setup program.
The Setup program updates the list of equipment installed inthe computer. You need to run this program the first time youuse your computer and any time options are added or changed.
1
Unpacking
As you unpack the different parts of your computer system, besure to inspect each piece. If anything is missing or looksdamaged, contact the place where it was purchased for missingitems or replacements. If you cannot obtain the necessary partor parts, call your Epson Customer Care Center for assistance.
Please have the computer’s serial number ready when you call.
Setting Up Your System 1-1Besides this manual, you should have the following:The computer and power cord
The keyboard with attached cable
Four diskettes: three that contain the MS-DOS operatingsystem (Startup, Operating 1, and Operating 2), and a
Reference diskette
An MS-DOS Reference Manual.
In addition to these items, you need a compatible monitor touse with the computer. With the MGA (multi-graphicsadapter) card in the computer, you can use a monochrome orcolor graphics monitor.
You’ll find warranty and registration cards with the computer.
Fill out the registration card and mail it to Epson. With thiscard on file, Epson can send you update information. You alsoshould retain the computer’s receipt from the place of purchase.
The receipt is all that is required for warranty service.
Be sure to keep your packing materials. They provide the bestprotection for your computer if you need to transport it later.Removing the Diskette Drive Protector Card
A protective piece of cardboard occupies the slot of thediskette drive in your computer. This card is inserted at thefactory to protect the read/write heads in the drive.
Be sure to remove the card from the diskette drive before youturn on the computer. Turn the diskette drive latch up until itis horizontal and carefully pull out the card.
Save the protector card and reinsert it whenever you move thecomputer. If you don’t plan to use your computer for a week ormore, reinsert the card to help prevent dust from entering thedisk drive.
Setting Up Your System 1-32
Choosing a Location
Before you set up your computer, it is important to choose theright location. Select a spot that provides the following:A large, sturdy desk or table that can easily support theweight of your system, including all of its components.
Make sure the surface is hard and flat. Soft surfaces likebeds and carpeted floors can generate static electricity,which may erase data on your disks and damage thecomputer’s circuitry. Soft surfaces also prevent properventilation.
Good air circulation. Air must be able to move freely underthe system as well as behind it. Leave several inches ofspace around the computer to allow ventilation.
Moderate environmental conditions. Protect yourcomputer from extremes in temperature, direct sunlight, orany other source of heat. High humidity also hindersoperation, so select a cool, dry area. Avoid dust and smoke,which can damage disks and disk drives and cause you tolose valuable data.
Appropriate power sources. To prevent static charges,connect all your equipment to three-prong, 120-volt AC,grounded outlets. You need one outlet for the computer,one for the monitor, and additional outlets for a printerand any other peripherals.
If it has the appropriate power cord, you can plug themonitor into the auxiliary power outlet on the back panelof the computer, reducing the number of wall outlets youneed. (The current required by the peripheral must notexceed 1 amp.) If you need more outlets, you may want tobuy a power strip-available at any electronics store-toprovide extra outlets. A power strip with surge suppressionis recommended.Cl No electromagnetic interference. Locate your system awayfrom any electrical device, such as a telephone, thatgenerates an electromagnetic field.
3
Connecting a Monitor
Your computer comes with an MGA (multi-graphics adapter)card installed. This card controls the monitor and provides theconnection needed to attach the monitor to the computer. Youcan connect a monochrome or color graphics monitor to thiscard.
Note
If you are using a monitor that is neither monochrome norcolor graphics (such as an EGA or VGA monitor) with yourcomputer, you need a compatible display adapter card tocontrol it. If the optional card is nut already installed in thecomputer, you need to install it before you can connect themonitor, See Chapter 5 for instructions on adding optioncards (in this case, the video card).
The procedure you use to connect your monitor to thecomputer depends on the type of monitor you have. See yourmonitor manual for detailed instructions, or follow thesegeneral guidelines:1. Place your monitor on top of or near the computer. It iseasiest to connect the monitor cable if you are facing theback panels of both the monitor and the computer.
2. If necessary, connect the monitor cable to the monitor.
(Some monitors, such as the color Apex monitor, comewith permanently attached cables.)
Setting Up Your System 1-53. Connect the monitor cable to the video card connector onthe back of the computer, as shown below. If the plug hasretaining screws, tighten them securely.
4. If necessary, plug the monitor’s power cord into themonitor’s power inlet. (The power cord on Apex monitorsis already attached.)
5. Plug the other end of the monitor’s power cord into anelectrical outlet.
Note Note
If the monitor has the proper type of plug, you can plug If the monitor has the proper type of plug, you can plugit into the auxiliary AC outlet next to the AC inlet on it into the auxiliary AC outlet next to the AC inlet onthe back of the computer. the back of the computer.
6. If you connected the monitor to the MGA card in thecomputer, set the color/mono monitor switch on the card
(shown in the following illustration) to match the type ofmonitor you are using, either color or monochrome.Note
Many color monitors display in only one color (such asgreen or amber), but are not monochrome monitors. Ifyour monitor is not specifically a monochrome monitor,you should set the color/mono switch to color. Checkthe documentation that came with your monitor toverify the type of monitor.
4
Connecting a Printer, Mouse, or Modem
The computer has a parallel interface and a serial interface onthe back panel, so you can easily connect a printer or othertype of device with either type of interface.
For example, you can use the parallel port to connect a parallelprinter (most printers have a parallel interface). You can usethe serial port to connect a serial printer, a serial mouse, or anexternal modem.
Follow the steps in this section to connect a printer or otherperipheral device to either the parallel or serial interface.
Setting Up Your System 1-7Using the Parallel Interface
The parallel interface on your computer is Centronics
compatible and uses a 25-pin connector. To connect a parallelprinter to your computer, you need an IBM-compatible printercable. If you are not sure which one you need, or whether youhave the right one, check with the store where you purchasedthe printer.
Once you have the correct printer cable, follow these steps toconnect the printer to the parallel interface on the computer:1. Place the printer next to your computer.
2. One end of the printer cable has a 25-pin, male connector.
Connect this end to the parallel port on the back panel ofthe computer, as shown below. If the plug has retainingscrews, tighten them securely.3. Connect the other end of the cable to the printer, as shownbelow. If the printer has retaining clips on each side of theprinter port, squeeze the clips together to secure the cable.
4. Plug the printer’s power cord into an electrical outlet.
Using the Serial Interface
If you have a serial printer, modem, mouse, or any otherperipheral with a serial interface, you can connect it to theserial (RS-232C) port on the back of the computer. Yourcomputer uses an IBM-compatible, 9-pin, male connector, sobe sure you have the proper cable. If you are not sure whichone you need, or whether you have the right one, check withthe store where you bought the cable.
Setting Up Your System 1-8To connect a serial device, follow the same steps outlinedabove for a parallel device, but connect the cable to the serialport, shown below.
Setting up the serial port for a printer
If you are using a serial printer but your software does notsupport a serial printer, you must do two things before you canprint:Set up the data transmission parameters for the serial port
Tell the computer to redirect printer data from the parallelport to the serial port.
The MS-DOS MODE command lets you define the baud rate,parity, data length, and number of stop bits for a primary and asecondary serial port. MODE also lets you redirect output fromthe parallel port to the serial port. (The MENU program offersan easy way to use MODE. For instructions, see the descriptionof the Mode Settings option of the MENU program in your
MS-DOS Reference Manual.)5
Connecting the Power Cord
Follow these steps to connect the power cord:1. Insert the power cord into the AC inlet on the computer’sback panel, as shown below. To avoid an electric shock, besure to plug the cord into the computer before plugging itinto the wall socket.
2. Plug the other end of the power cord into a three-prong,grounded electrical outlet.
Setting Up Your System 1-116
Connecting the Keyboard
Follow these steps to connect the keyboard:1. Facing the front of the computer, open the cover on thelower left comer. Push the top of the cover inward andthen release it.
2. Plug the keyboard cable into the socket, as shown in thefollowing illustration. Do not force the connector, but besure to insert it all the way.3.
Push the cable into the notch at the left side of thecomputer, as shown below, so the cable leads away to theleft side of the computer.
4. Close the keyboard cable cover,
Setting Up Your System
1-13Adjusting the Keyboard Angle
You can change the angle of the keyboard by adjusting the legson the bottom. Turn the keyboard over and lift each legupward until it locks into place, as shown below. You can lockthe legs into a low or high position, or leave them flat.
7
Setting the Front Monitor Switch
Set the monitor switch on the front panel of the computer tomatch the type of monitor you are using. The monitor switch islocated behind the cover to the right of the keyboard socketcover, as shown in the following figure. To open this cover,push the top of the cover inward and then release it.Move the switch to the right to select color and to the left toselect monochrome. If you have an EGA or VGA monitor, setthe switch to color.
8
Turning On the Computer
Before you turn on your computer, read the following safetyrules to avoid accidentally damaging the computer or injuringyourself:Never turn the computer on with a protector card in thediskette drive.
Do not unplug cables from the computer when the powerswitch is on.
Never turn off or reset your computer while a disk drivelight is on. This can destroy data stored on disk or make anentire disk unusable. Similarly, never remove a diskettefrom a diskette drive while the drive light is on.
Setting Up Your System 1-15Always wait at least five seconds after you switch off thepower before you switch it on again. Turning the power offand on rapidly can damage the computer’s circuitry.
Do not leave a beverage on top of or next to your system orany of its components. Spilled liquid can damage thecircuitry of your equipment.
Do not attempt to dismantle any part of the computer.
Only remove the cover to install and remove optionaldevices. If there is a hardware problem you cannot solveafter reading the appropriate section in Chapter 6, contactyour Epson Customer Care Center.
Always turn off the power, disconnect all cables, and waitfive seconds before you remove the computer’s cover.
Follow these steps to turn on your system:1. Turn on the monitor, printer, and any other peripheraldevices connected to the computer.
2. To turn on the computer, press the power switch.
The power indicator on the front panel lights up. After a fewseconds, the computer starts to perform an internal self test.
This is a series of checks the computer completes each time youturn it on to make sure everything is working correctly. Ifanything is wrong, an error message appears on the screen.After the self test is complete, you see a message on the screensimilar to this:RAM Testing . . . 256KB
The computer continually updates this display as it tests itsmemory. This test takes about 15 seconds to complete.
You may see a message like this:162 - System Options not set
(Run SETUP in DIAGNOSTICS)
Resume = "F1" key)
This means that the computer is not yet set up for theequipment you have installed and you must run the Setupprogram, described in Chapter 2. For now, press the F1 key onthe upper left comer of the keyboard to acknowledge themessage and continue.
If you cannot see the screen display clearly, use the controls onyour monitor to adjust the brightness and contrast untilcharacters on the screen are clear and bright.
The computer then loads MS-DOS, the operating system, fromthe hard disk into memory. MS-DOS must be in the computer’smemory before you can run any application program, such as aword processing program or a spreadsheet program.
Note
Alternatively, you can load MS-DOS from the Startup Alternatively, you can load MS-DOS from the Startupdiskette in the diskette drive instead of from the hard disk. If diskette in the diskette drive instead of from the hard disk, Ifyour computer does not have a hard disk, you must use this your computer does not have a hard disk, you must use thismethod. See “Loading MS-DOS From a Diskette” in method. See “Loading MS-DOS From a Diskette” in
Chapter 4 for instructions. Chapter 4 for instructions.
Setting Up Your System 1-17The Command Prompt
After the computer has loaded MS-DOS from the hard disk,you see the MS-DOS command prompt on the screen:C:\>
The command prompt tells you that your computer is ready toreceive instructions. It also identifies the current operatingdrive: A or C, for example. The command prompt appears onthe screen whenever you load MS-DOS, complete an MS-DOScommand, or exit an application program.
In your computer, the diskette drive is A and the hard diskis drive C. If you have an optional second diskette drive,
MS-DOS identifies it as B.
9
Copying System Diskettes
Now that you have started your system and loaded MS-DOS,it is important that you make copies of your MS-DOS and
Reference diskettes right away. Use the copies (called workingcopies) as they are needed and store the originals in a safeplace.
Note
If you have only a single diskette drive and no hard diskdrive, see "Using DISKCOPY With One Drive Only" in
Chapter 4 for instructions on copying diskettes.
Each of the system diskettes is formatted for 360KB.
(Formatting prepares a diskette to store data and is describedin Chapter 3.) To copy them, you need four 360KB double-density, 5¼-inch diskettes.Note
If you do not have any 360KB diskettes, you can useunformatted 1.2MB, high-density diskettes. When copyingfrom 360KB diskettes, the DISKCOPY program fomats the
1.2MB high-density diskettes for 360KB.
Follow these steps:1. The C : \> prompt should be on the screen. If not, type C :and press Enter.
2. Type the following and press Enter:DISKCOPY A: A:The screen displays this message:Insert SOURCE diskette in drive A:Press any key when ready . . .
3. Insert the Startup diskette in drive A, as shown below.
Hold the diskette with the label facing up and theread/write slot leading into the drive.
Setting Up Your System 1-194.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
When the diskette is in all the way, turn the latch down
(clockwise) to lock the diskette in place.
Press any key. The DISKCOPY program copies thecontents of the Startup diskette to the computer’s memory,and then you see the following:Insert TARGET diskette in drive A:Press any key when ready . . .
Remove the Startup diskette and insert a blank diskette
(which is to be the target diskette) in drive A. Then pressany key.
If the diskette is not formatted, the DISKCOPY programformats it. Then the program begins copying the data fromthe computer’s memory to the formatted diskette. Whenthe copy is complete, you see this prompt:Copy another diskette (Y/N)?
Press Y so you can make a copy of the Operating 1 diskette.
Again, you see the prompt to insert the source diskette.
Remove the copy of the Startup diskette which you justmade and insert the Operating 1 diskette into drive A.
Then press any key. Follow the prompts on the screen tomake a copy of this diskette as you did for the Startupdiskette.
Repeat the procedure to copy the Operating 2 diskette.
Repeat the procedure to copy the Reference diskette.
10. When you finish copying the last diskette and the
Copy another diskette (Y/N)? promptappears, press N to return to the MS-DOS commandprompt C : \>.After you have copied the four diskettes, be sure to label themcarefully so you know which one is which. Write on the labelsbefore you attach them to the diskettes in order to preventdamaging the diskettes. Store the originals in a safe place anduse the copies as they are needed.
You are now ready to run the Setup program, which isdescribed in the following chapter.
Setting Up Your System 1-21Chapter 2
Running the Setup Program
The first time you use your computer after setting it up, youneed to run the Setup program on the Reference diskette. The
Setup program lets you update the following for your computer:The amount of memory installed
The type of video display adapter installed
The math coprocessor status
The number and type of disk drives (“mass storage”)installed
The internal clock’s time and date.
You probably do not need to change all these settings; justchange the ones that apply to your computer. For example, ifyou have added no extra equipment and have a color graphicsmonitor, you would use the Setup program to set the internalclock’s time and date.
Your computer stores the information you enter with the Setupprogram in a special memory area, called CMOS RAM, whichis backed up by a battery. When you turn off the computer, thecomputer stores the Setup information in this memory. Whenyou turn the computer on, it searches the CMOS RAM toobtain the correct configuration information. If there is adifference between the information in CMOS RAM and theactual configuration, you see a prompt to run the Setupprogram.
To start the Setup program, follow these steps:1. Insert the Reference diskette into drive A.
2. If you are not already logged onto drive A, type A: andpress Enter.
Running the Setup Program 2-13. Type SET UP and press Enter. The screen displays themain Setup menu with these options:Exit
Memory
Display
Coprocessor
Mass storage
Real-timeclock
You use and to move the cursor block (the highlightedbar) through the options on this menu. Once you highlightthe option you want, press Enter to select it.
If you do not want to make any changes, or when you havefinished making changes, select the E x i t option. See
“Leaving the Setup Program” below for instructions.
Note
Another way to start the Setup program is to turn on or resetthe computer with the Reference diskette in the drive. If youdo this, you see the following Operation menu:OPERATION MENU
1 - Setup
2 - Format hard disk
3 - Format diskette
4 - System diagnostics
5 - Prepare hard disk for moving
0 - Exit to DOS for more utilities
Enter selectionnumber:This is the menu for the setup and diagnostics programs onthe Reference diskette. Press 1 and then Enter to select the
Set up option. The screen then displays the main Setupmenu.Follow the instructions below to verify or change the values forthe Setup options.
Changing the Amount of Memory
Your computer has two types of memory: main memory andextended memory. The main memory in your computer is set at
640KB, which is the maximum value and is recommended formost applications.
Note
Although your computer has 1MB of main memory, you canaccess only 640KB; the computer uses the rest for otherpurposes.
The value you set for the extended memory depends on thetotal amount of memory available in your computer above the
1MB of main memory. This amount consists of any additional
RAM on an expansion card that you may have installed.
Note
Certain MS-DOS applications and other operating systemsmay require extended memory. You can also use extendedmemory to set up RAM disks for temparary storage, usingthe VDISK.SYS driver. See your MS-DOS manual forinformation regarding VDISK.SYS.
If you have changed the amount of memory in the computer,follow these steps:1. Highlight Memory and press Enter. This menu appearson the screen:640 KB Main
0 KB Expansion
** SAVE SETTINGS **
Running the Setup Program 2-32. To change the Main memory setting press Enter. Thevalue changes to 256KB. Press Enter again to change it to
512KB. If you press Enter again, the value returns to
640KB.
3. To change the Expansion memory setting, highlight the
Expansion option. You can increase and decrease thememory in 64KB increments by using the + and -keys. Forexample, to increase the expansion memory from 0KB to
256KB, press + four times. The screen displays thefollowing:640 KB Main
256 KB Expansion
** SAVE SETTINGS **
4. When you finish setting the amount of memory, highlight
** SAVE SETTINGS ** and press Enter to returnto the main menu.
Setting the Type of Display
Select the Display option in the main menu if you are notusing a color graphics monitor or if you change the video cardin your computer.
If you are using the MGA card that came with yourcomputer, make sure that both monitor switches (labelled
"color/mono") are set correctly if you are using amonochrome or color graphics monitor. One monitor switchis on the MGA card on the back of the compuer and theother is on the front. See Chapter 1 for instructions.
NoteTo change the display type, follow these steps:1. Highlight Display and press Enter. Another menuappears to show the current setting. If you have an
80-column, color monitor installed, you see:Color/graph. 80 col
** SAVE SETTINGS **
2. To change the monitor type, press Enter. This menuappears, listing the various options:* Special options *
Color/graph. 80 col
Color/graph. 40 col
Monochrome 80 col
Choose the monitor type according to the combination ofmonitor and video card you have, as follows:If you have a monochrome monitor, choose
Monochrome 80 col, regardless of the type ofvideo card installed.
If you have a color graphics monitor, select
Color/graph. 80 col.
If you have an EGA or VGA monitor, and havealready installed the correct video card, select
* Special Options *. You may also need toset a DIP switch on the video card which overrides thedisplay setting in CMOS RAM. See the instructionsthat came with the video card.
If you have a composite color monitor, such as acolor television with a video input, try selecting
Color/graph. 80 col. If resolution is poor,run Setup again and select Color/graph. 40col.
Running the Setup Program 2-5If you have any other combination of monitor andvideo card, consult the documentation supplied withyour video card.
3. Highlight the appropriate option and press Enter.
4. Highlight ** SAVE SETTINGS ** and then press
Enter to save the setting.
Adding an 80287 Coprocessor
Use the Coprocessor option if you add an Intel

80287numeric coprocessor to your system. If you later remove thecoprocessor, use this option to delete it from the list ofequipment that the computer maintains; this prevents softwarefrom trying to use the 80287 commands.
Follow these steps:1. Highlight Coprocessor and press Enter. You see thismenu:80287 not installed
*** SAVE SETTINGS ***
2. The 80287 not installed line is highlighted.
Press Enter to change the setting. This line alternatesbetween 80287 not installed and 80287installed each time you press Enter. Highlight thecorrect setting.
3. Highlight *** SAVE SETTINGS *** to save thesetting and then press Enter.Changing the Disk Drive Settings
Use the Mass storage option of the main menu if youinstall an additional diskette drive or hard disk drive, or if youremove an existing drive. Follow these steps:1. Highlight Mass storage and press Enter. You see amenu like this:Drive A: 1.2 MB
Drive B: None
Drive C:Type2
Drive D: none
** SAVE SETTINGS **
2. To change the value for one of the diskette drives—drive B, for example-highlight Drive B : and press
Enter. A second menu appears:Not installed
360 KB drive
720 KB drive (3.5")
1.2 MB drive
1.44 MB drive (3.5")
3. Highlight the type of drive that matches the seconddiskette drive installed in your computer; then press Enterto select it. The second menu disappears and the Massstorage menu shows the new setting.
4. To change the value for drive C, the hard disk, highlightthat option. Then use the + or - key to increase or decreasethe value until the number matches the type of driveinstalled in your computer. See Appendix F for a list ofhard disk drive types. If you are not sure which one youhave, consult your dealer.
Running the Setup Program 2-7Use this same procedure if you need to change the settingfor a second hard disk drive installed in your computer
(drive D).
5. When all the disk drive settings are correct, highlight
** SAVE SETTINGS ** and press Enter.
Setting the Real-time Clock
The real-time clock in your computer keeps track of the timeand date at all times-even when the computer is turned off.
Use the Real-time clock option to set the time anddate for your computer after you set it up. You may need to useit again later to adjust the time for daylight savings time. Thecomputer automatically changes the date for leap years.
Note
Another way to change the real-time clock's time and dateis with the MS-DOS (version 3.3 or later) TIME and DATEcommands. See your MS-DOS Reference Manual forinstructions.
Follow these steps to set the real-time clock:1. Highlight Real-time clock and press Enter. Yousee the current setting for the time and date:17: 10: 54 Time
03 - 21 - 1989 Date
2. To change the time, highlight Time and press Enter.
This box appears:hh : mm : ss
—3. Using a 24-hour time period, enter the time in the exactformat shown in the box. Use two digits for each part (youcan omit the seconds, if desired); the Setup programautomatically inserts the colons (:). For example, to changethe time to 1:30 p.m., you would type the following:1330
If you enter an invalid time-for example, a numbergreater than 23 for the hours or greater than 59 for theminutes or seconds-the computer beeps and ignores yourentry. Try again. You can use the backspace key, ifnecessary, to correct mistakes.
When the time is correct, press Enter.
4. To set the date, highlight D at e and press Enter. You seethis box:mm-dd-yyyy
-
5. Enter the date in the exact format shown in the box, usingtwo digits for the month and day and four digits for theyear; the program automatically inserts the dashes. Forexample, to set the date for August 30, 1989, you wouldtype the following:08301989
If you enter an invalid date-for example, a number greaterthan 12 for the month or greater than the number of daysin that month-the computer beeps and ignores your entry.
Try again.
When the date is correct, press Enter.
6. When both the time and date are correct, press once ortwice to return to the main Setup menu.
Running the Setup Program 2-9The time and date are set automatically as soon as you press
Enter after typing the time and date; you do not need to savethese settings. Therefore, if you change either setting in the
Setup program and then exit the program without saving yourchanges, the new time or date still takes effect.
Leaving the Setup Program
When you finish setting the options in the Setup menu,highlight the Exit option and press Enter. You see asummary such as this:Memory size
Display type
Coprocessor
Mass storage
Real-time clock
Main 640KB
Expansion 0 KB
Color/graph. 80 col
80287 not installed
Drive A:Drive B:Drive C:Drive D:Time 13:30:00
Date 08-30-1989
1.2 MB
None
Type 11
None
C h a n g e S e t t i n g s
E x i t w i t h o u t s a v i n g
** EXIT AND SAVE **
Check the list to see if all the information is correct. If anysetting is incorrect, highlight Change settings andpress Enter. The main Setup menu appears and you can changethe setting, as necessary.If you did not make any changes or you want to cancel thechanges you made, highlight Exit without savingand press Enter. The command prompt appears on the screen.
(If you turned on or reset the computer with the Referencediskette in the drive, the Operation menu appears on thescreen. Press 0 and Enter to return to the MS-DOS commandprompt.)
Note
If you changed the time or date, the new setting will be ineffect even if you exit the Setup program without savingyour changes.
If you want to save the settings you made, follow these steps:1. Remove the Reference diskette from drive A.
2. Highlight ** EXIT AND SAVE ** and press Enter.
The program stores the new settings and resets thecomputer using the new configuration. The C : \> promptappears on the screen.
If the computer displays a setup error message while it isstarting up, run the Setup program again and check all yoursettings.
Running the Setup Program 2-11Chapter 3
Using Your Computer
This chapter covers the following basic procedures for usingyour computer:Changing the operating speed
Using special keys on the keyboard
Stopping a command or program
Resetting and turning off the computer
Using disks and disk drives.
Changing the Operating Speed
Your computer can operate at two speeds: 8 MHz or 12 MHz.
At 12 MHz, the computer performs all tasks faster, and almostall programs may be run at 12 MHz. However, some optioncards and application programs require the lower speed. Seeyour option card or application program manual to make surethat you can use the higher speed before selecting it.
Use the CPU SPEED switch on the front panel to change thespeed; move it left for 8 MHz or right for 12 MHz.
Using Your Computer 3-1WARNING
You can change the speed while the computer is on, but donot change it while you are running a program. Completeyour current operation, exit the program to the MS-DOScommand prompt, and then change the speed.
Special Keys on the Apex Keyboard
Certain keys on your keyboard serve special functions whenyour computer is running application programs. Theillustration below shows the Apex keyboard, and the table thatfollows describes the special keys.
Key Purpose
F1-F12 Perform special functions within applicationprograms. (Some keys also function with
MS-DOS. See your MS-DOS Reference Manualfor more information.)
Tab Moves the cursor one tab to the right in normalmode (and one tab to the left in shift mode whenusing some application programs).
Ctrl
Shift
Works with other keys to perform special (control)functions, such as editing operations.
Produces uppercase characters or the topsymbols on the keys when used with the maincharacter keys. Produces lowercase characterswhen Caps Lock is on.Key
Purpose
Alt
Backspace
Enter
Caps Lock
Esc
Num Lock
Scroll Lock
Break
Sys Req
PrtSc
Home, End,
PgUp, PgDn,
Ins
Del
Works with other keys to enter alternate charactercodes or functions.
Moves the cursor back one space, deleting thecharacter to the left of the cursor.
Ends a line of keyboard input or executes acommand (may be called the Return key in someapplication program manuals).
Changes the letter keys from lower- to uppercase;changes back to lowercase when pressed again.
The numeric/symbol keys on the top row of thekeyboard are not affected.
Cancels the current command line or operation in
MS-DOS. Esc can also have special uses inapplication programs.
Changes the function of the keys on the numeric/cursor keypad from numeric entry to cursorpositioning; changes back when pressed again.
Controls scrolling in some application programs.
When pressed with the Ctrl key (hold down Ctrland press Break), sends a break signal to thecomputer to terminate the current operation.
Produces the system request function in certainapplications.
Prints the screen display on a dot-matrix printer.
Control cursor location in some applications, suchas word processors, game programs, andspreadsheets.
Turns the insert function on and off in someapplication programs.
Deletes the character at the cursor position.
Using Your Computer 3-3The Num Lock, Scroll Lock, and Caps Lock keys work astoggles; press the key once to turn on a function and again toturn it off. When the function is enabled, the correspondinglight on the top right comer of the keyboard is on. When thefunction is disabled, the light is off.
Stopping a Command or Program
You may sometimes need to stop a command or program whileit is running. Many application programs provide a commandyou can use to stop or even cancel (undo) an operation. If youhave entered an MS-DOS command that you want to stop, tryone of the following commands:Hold down the Ctrl key and press C
Hold down the Ctrl key and press Break.
These methods may also work in your application programs. Ifyou cannot stop a particular operation, however, you may needto reset the computer, as described in the following section.
Caution
It is best not to turn off the computer to stop a program orcommand. If you have created new data that you have notyet stored, it will be erased if you turn off the computer. Yourcomputer stores data in its memory until you save it; but thememory area is erased each time you turn off or reset thecomputer.Resetting the Computer
Occasionally, you may want to stop what the computer is doingentirely and reload MS-DOS. This is called resetting thecomputer. You may need to do this if an error occurs and thecomputer does not respond to anything you type on thekeyboard. However, resetting erases all data in the computer’smemory that you have not stored, so reset your computer onlyif necessary.
WARNING
Do not reset the computer to exit a program unless you needto. Some application programs classify and store new datawhen you exit the program. If you reset the computerwithout properly exiting the program, you may lose data.
There are three ways to reset. Because each is more powerfulthan the last, try them in the order listed here:1. If you are using MS-DOS, hold down Ctrl and Alt and pressthe Del key. The screen should go blank for a moment andthen the computer reloads MS-DOS. If this does notcorrect the problem, try the second method.
2. Press the RESET button on the front panel. This methodworks even when the keyboard does not respond to yourcommands. If this does not correct the problem, try thethird method.
3. Remove any diskettes from the diskette drive. Turn offthe computer and wait five seconds. Then turn the powerback on. The computer loads MS-DOS and displays the
MS-DOS prompt.
Using Your Computer 3-5Turning Off the Computer
Before turning off your computer, be sure to save your data andexit the program you are using. Then remove any diskettesfrom the diskette drive. Turn off the computer first and thenturn off the monitor and any peripherals.
Using Disks and Disk Drives
The disk drives in your computer allow you to store data ondisk and retrieve it when you want it. The Apex 200\20has one 1.2MB diskette drive and one 20MB hard disk. The
Apex 200\40 has one 1.2MB diskette drive and one 40MBhard disk.
This section explains how disks work and tells you how to dothe following:Choose diskettes
Care for your diskettes and diskette drives
Insert and remove diskettes
Write-protect diskettes
Make backup copies of your diskettes
Use a single diskette drive
Use a hard disk drive.
How Disks Store Data
The diskette you insert in your computer’s diskette drive ismade of flexible plastic, coated with magnetic material. It isenclosed in a square jacket that is slightly flexible. Yourcomputer stores data on the diskette by recording on themagnetic surface.Unlike a diskette, a hard disk is rigid and fixed in place. It issealed in a protective case to keep it free from dust and dirt. Ahard disk stores data the same way that a diskette does, but itworks faster and has a much larger storage capacity.
All disks are divided into data storage compartments by sides,tracks, and sectors. Double-sided diskettes-like the ones youuse in your computer-store data on both sides. On your diskthere are concentric rings, called tracks, in which a disk canstore data. Double-density diskettes (such as 360KB diskettes)have 40 tracks, and high-density diskettes (such as 1.2MBdiskettes) have 80 tracks.
A hard disk consists of two or more magnetically-coatedplatters stacked on top of one another, so it has four or moresides with many more tracks than a diskette.
A disk is further divided by sectors. To understand what asector is, picture the spokes on a bicycle wheel radiating fromthe center of the wheel to the tire. The space between onespoke and the next is like a sector on a diskette. (See the figurebelow.) Each track on a 1.2MB diskette has 15 sectors, andeach sector holds 512 bytes.
Using Your Computer 3-7Your computer uses the read/write heads in a disk drive to storeand retrieve data on a disk. There is one head above thediskette and one below, so the drive can write to both sides ofthe diskette. To write to a disk, the computer spins it in thedrive to a position where one of the read/write heads can accessthe diskette through the read/write slot. The read/write sloton a diskette exposes the diskette’s magnetic surface so theread/write head can write on the appropriate area.
Because data is stored magnetically, you can retrieve it, recordover it, and erase it-just as you play, record, and erase musicon a cassette tape.
Types of Diskette Drives
Your computer has at least one 1.2MB diskette drive. With thisdrive, use 5¼-inch, double-sided, high-density, 96 TPI, 1.2MBdiskettes. These diskettes contain 80 tracks per side, 15 sectorsper track, and hold up to 1.2MB of information, which isapproximately 500 pages of text. You can also format thesediskettes for 360KB—see your MS-DOS Reference Manual formore information.
In addition, you may have a diskette drive of a different type.
The following list describes the types of optional diskette drivesyou can use in your computer and which diskettes you shoulduse with them:360KB drive-With this drive, use 5¼-inch, double-sided,double-density, 48 TPI (tracks per inch), 360KB diskettes.
(You can also use single-sided, 160KB or 180KB diskettes.)
These diskettes contain 40 tracks per side, 8 or 9 sectors pertrack, and hold up to 360KB of information, which isapproximately 150 pages of text, (With 8 sectors per track,a diskette holds up to 320KB.)720KB drive-With this drive, use 3½-inch, double-sided,double-density, 135 TPI, 720KB diskettes. These diskettescontain 80 tracks per side, 9 sectors per track, and hold upto 720KB of information-approximately 300 pages of text.
1.44MB drive-With this drive, use 3½-inch, double-sided, high-density, 135 TPI, 1.44MB diskettes. Thesediskettes contain 80 tracks per side, 18 sectors per track,and hold up to 1.44MB of information-approximately 600pages of text.
If your computer has more than one type of these drives or ifyou use diskettes from other computers, you need to be aware ofcertain incompatibilities between the drives and the diskettesthey use.
Note Note
You must format new diskettes before you can use them withan operating system. Formatting erases all the data on adiskette and prepares it to receive new data, so be sure toformat only new blank diskettes or diskettes that containsdata you want to erase. See Chapter 4 for instructions on data you want to erase. See Chapter 4 for instructions onformatting diskettes.
Drive and diskette incompatibilities
Because of the size difference, you cannot use 3½-inchdiskettes in a 5¼-inch drive or vice versa. There are alsocertain limitations on using diskettes that are the same size asthe drive but have different capacities. The following tablessummarize the possibilities and limitations.
5¼-inch drive/diskette compatibility
Drive type Diskette types it can read from and write to
360KB 160KB, 180KB, 320KB, or 360KB
1.2MB 160KB, 180KB, 320KB, 360KB, or 1.2MB
Using Your Computer 3-9WARNING
If you write to a 360KB (or 160KB, 180KB, or 320KB)diskette while it is in a 1.2MB drive, you may not be able toread it or write it in a 360KB drive later.
3½-inch drive/diskette compatibility
Drive type Diskette types it can read from and write to
720KB 720KB
1.44MB 720KB, or 1.44MB
Because of these incompatibilities, you should indicate thedensity and diskette type when you label your diskettes.
(Usually this information appears on the manufacturer’s label.)
If you have any combination of the above drives (360KB,
1.2MB, 720KB, or 1.44MB), you can copy files from one driveto another-using the COPY or XCOPY command-as long asthe correct diskette type is in each drive. You can use thesecommands to copy files between the hard disk and any type ofdiskette. You cannot use DISKCOPY to copy from one drive toanother if the two drives are not the same type.
Caring for Diskettes and Diskette Drives
Follow these basic precautions to protect your diskettes andavoid losing data:Do not remove a diskette from the diskette drive or turn offthe computer while the drive light is on. This lightindicates that the computer is copying data to or from adiskette. If you interrupt this process, you can destroy data.
Remove all diskettes before you turn off the computer.
Keep diskettes away from dust and dirt. Small particles ofdust or dirt can scratch the magnetic surface and destroydata. Dust can also ruin the read/write heads in a diskettedrive.Never wipe, brush, or try to clean diskettes in any way.
Keep diskettes in a moderate environment. They work bestat normal room temperature and in normal humidity. Donot leave your diskettes sitting in the sun, or in extremecold or heat.
Keep diskettes away from magnetic fields. (Remember thatdiskettes store information magnetically.) There are manysources of magne

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