Epson Apex 110 Download Manual


Seiko Epson Corporation makes no representations or warranties, either expressor implied, by or with respect to anything in this manual, and shall not be liable forany implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose orfor any indirect, special or consequential damages. Some states do not allow theexclusion of incidental or consequential damages, so this exclusion may not applyto you.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in aretrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechani-cal, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of
Seiko Epson Corporation. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use ofinformation contained herein. While every precaution has been taken in the prep-aration of this publication, Seiko Epson Corporation assumes no responsibility forerrors or omissions. Nor is any liability assumed for damages resulting from the useof the information contained herein. Further, this publication and featuresdescribed herein are subject to change without notice.
Epson is a registered trademark of Seiko Epson Corporation.
Equity is a trademark of Epson America, Inc.
Centronics is a registered trademark of Centronics Data Computer Corp.
Hercules is a trademark of Hercules Computer Technology.
IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corp.
MS and GW are trademarks of Microsoft Corp.
Copyright 1986 by Seiko Epson Corporation
This equipment generates and uses radio frequency energy and if not installed andused properly, that is, in strict accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, maycause interference to radio and television reception. It has been type tested and foundto comply with the limits for a Class B computing device in accordance with thespecifications in Subpart J of Part 15 of FCC rules, which are designed to providereasonable protection against such interference in a residential installation. However,there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If thisequipment does cause interference to radio or television reception, which can be deter-mined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correctthe interference by one or more of the following measures:l Reorient the receiving antennal Relocate the computer with respect to the receiverl Move the computer away from the receiverl Plug the computer into a different outlet so that computer and receiver are ondifferent branch circuits.
If necessary, the user should consult the dealer or an experienced radio/television tech-nician for additional suggestions. The user may find the following booklet prepared bythe Federal Communications Commission helpful:“Television Interference Handbook”
This booklet is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC
20402. Stock No. 004-000-00450-7.
Note: If the interference stops, it was probably caused by the computer or its periph-eral devices. To further isolate the problem:Disconnect the peripheral devices and their input/output cables one at a time.
If the interference stops, it is caused by either the peripheral device or its I/Ocable. These devices usually require shielded I/O cables. For Epson peripheraldevices, you can obtain the proper shielded cable from your dealer. For non-
Epson peripheral devices contact the manufacturer or dealer for assistance.
This equipment has been certified to comply with the limits for a Class Bcomputing device, pursuant to Subpart J of Part 15 of FCC Rules. Onlyperipherals (computer input/output devices, terminals, printers, etc.) certi-fied to comply with the Class B limits may be attached to this computer.
Operation with non-certified peripherals is likely to result in interferenceto radio and TV reception.
The connection of a non-shielded equipment interface cable to this equip-ment will invalidate the FCC Certification of this device and may causeinterference levels which exceed the limits established by the FCC for thisequipment.iiiContents
Introduction ........
How to Use This Manual ............ Intro-2
1 Setting Up Your System ...........
Unpacking ...........
Removing the disk drive protector sheet
........... 1-2
Choosing a Location ...........
Arranging the Components .......... 1-3
The rear panel ...... 1-4
The front panel ............
Connecting the Power Cord ......... 1-6
Connecting the Video Monitor .......
Connecting the Keyboard ...........
Connecting the Printer .........
Parallel interface ............
Serial interface ......
The Equity I+ character set ........ 1-12
Setting the DIP Switches ............
DIP switch set 1 (internal operations)
......... 1-14
DIP switch set 2 (parallel and serialport operations) ...........
Turning On the Computer ........... 1-18
Safetyrules.. ....... 1-18
Initial setup procedure ............
.' ....... 1-19
Initial screen display .......... 1-19
2 Using Your Equity I+ ............
Special Keys ..........
Selecting Execution Speed ...........
Resetting the Computer .............
Turning Off the Computer ........... 2-4
Using Disks and Disk Drives .. .' ......
How disks work ............ 2-5
Choosing diskettes for the Equity I+ ......... 2-5
Caring for your disks and disk drives ......... 2-5
Inserting and removing diskettes ........... 2-7
Write-protecting diskettes ..........
VMaking backup copies.............
Using a single floppy disk drive ............
Using a hard disk drive............
3 Installing Option Cards ...........
Removing the Cover ...........
Inserting the Option Card...........
Removing an access slot cover......
Replacing the Cover ...........
Post-installation Setup ..........
Removing Option Cards............
4 Troubleshooting ........... 4-1
The Computer Fails to Start Up...... 4-1
The Video Display Does Not Appear ......... 4-1
The Computer Locks Up or Freezes .......... 4-2
Floppy Disk Problems .......... 4-2
Hard Disk Problems ........... 4-3
Software Problems ............ 4-3
Printer Problems...... 4-4
Option Card Problems ......... 4-4
A Changing Jumper Settings
Jumper J1, Floppy Disk Controller
Jumper J2, Parity RAM .........
B Specifications .......
Keyboard .........
Mass Storage.........
Power Supply.........
Environmental Requirements.........
Physical Characteristics (CPU Only)
Video and Display Options..........
C Glossary .........
Index .........
1-1 System arrangement ...........
1-2 Rear panel ...........
1-3 Front panel ..........
1-4 Inserting the power cord
............. 1-6
1-5 Connecting the monitor cable
........ 1-7
1-6 Opening the keyboard socket cover
........... 1-8
1-7 Connecting the cable to the main unit
......... 1-9
1-8 Adjusting the keyboard legs
.......... 1-10
1-9 Locating the printer ...........
1-10 Connecting the printer
......... 1-12
1-11 Location of DIP switches .............
1-12 DIP switch label .......
2-1 Equity I+ keyboard
........... 2-1
2-2 Speed switch
......... 2-3
2-3 Inserting diskettes ............ 2-7
2-4 Write-protect notch
........... 2-8
2-5 Write-protect switch
........... 2-9
3-1 Back panel screws
3-2 Side screws under plastic inserts
3-3 Removing cover.. ............
3-4 Inserting option card
3-5 Removing access slot cover
3-6 Replacing the cover
A-1 Jumper positions ...........
A-2 Jumper locations ...........
1- 1 Monitor/video card compatibility ............ 1-8
1-2 DIP switch set 1 ....... 1-14
1-3 DIP switch set 2 ....... 1-16
2-1 Special key functions ........
Your Epson

Equity I+ personal computer is a versatile, expandable,and economical system. Its flexibility lets you create your own system; firstyou choose from three models of the Equity I+ main unit, then you selectthe accessories you want to use with it to assemble the configuration thatdoes the most for you.
The Equity I+ main unit is available in three configurations:l One floppy disk drivel Two floppy disk drivesl One floppy disk drive and one internal hard disk drive.
You also choose which monitor you want to use.
Optional cards and external devices further expand the capabilities ofyour Equity I+. Its built-in serial and parallel interfaces and five internaloption slots let you connect almost any peripheral device you choose. Hereare some options you can use with your system:•

Expanded memory option card
8087 math coprocessor
Monochrome monitor
Monochrome video card
RGB (red green blue) color or enhanced color monitor
Color/graphics video card (color, monochrome, or enhanced graphicsadapter)
Graphics or enhanced graphics video card
An Epson printer or plotter.
Check with your Epson dealer from time to time to find out whichperipherals and option cards are available. You can use most of the cardsdesigned for the IBM
personal computer on your Equity I+.
Intro- 1The Equity I+ comes with the MS-DOS operating system and the
GW-BASIC programming language. If you have used MS-DOS before onanother computer, you will find that it works the same on the Equity I+. Besure to refer to your Equity MS-DOS manual, however, for descriptions ofthe special utility programs added by Epson.
You may have purchased other software as well; you can use most soft-ware products designed for the IBM PC on your Equity I+. Refer to yoursoftware program documentation for information on using the software.
Additionally, the Equity I+ supports multiple users and multiple taskingwith the appropriate operating system. Consult your Epson dealer for moreinformation.
How to Use This Manual
This user’s guide explains how to set up and care for your Equity I+. Italso describes how to connect optional equipment and start using your oper-ating system. You may not need to read everything in this book; some sec-tions may describe a particular option or accessory you do not have.
Follow the instructions in Chapter 1 to set up your system and turn onyour Equity I+. Chapter 2 covers some of the general operational proce-dures. It also describes how disks and disk drives work and shows how to usethem. Chapter 3 explains how to install and remove option cards. Chapter 4provides information on troubleshooting. The appendixes tell you how tochange jumper settings and list hardware specifications. A glossary of someof the computer terms this guide uses is also included, Refer to the glossarywhenever you come across an unfamiliar term.
Intro-2Chapter 1
Setting Up Your System
Setting up your Epson Equity I+ personal computer is easy. Just followthe nine easy steps in this chapter. You should also refer to the “Quick Guide
To Setting up Your Equity I+” reference card.
As you remove the components from their cartons, be sure toinspect each piece. If anything is missing, looks damaged, or seems wrong,consult your Epson dealer. Be sure to keep your packing materials. Theyprovide the best protection possible for your computer if you need to moveor ship it later.

When you unpack your Equity I+, you should find the following:The main unit and power cord
The keyboard with detachable cable
An MS-DOS operating system diskette (version 3.2) with an MS-DOSmanual
A GW-BASIC programming language diskette with a GW-BASICmanual
A diagnostics and system-dependent utilities diskette and a Diagnosticsmanual
This Equity I+ User’s Guide.
In addition to these items, you probably purchased a compatible videomonitor and video card.
You’ll find one registration card with your Equity I+. Fill the card outnow and mail it to Epson. With your registration card on file, Epson cansend you update information.
1-1Removing the disk drive protector sheet
A cardboard sheet occupies the disk slot in the floppy disk drive. Thissheet is inserted at the factory to protect the recording read/write heads.
Be sure to remove it before you connect any cables. Press the button onthe left side of the drive. When you release it the edge of the protector sheetpops out. Carefully pull out this sheet.
Save the protector sheet and reinsert it whenever you move the com-puter, even if you are just moving it to another part of the room. If you arenot going to use your computer for a week or more, when you go on vacationfor example, reinsert the protector sheet to help keep dust from entering thedisk drive.
Choosing a Location
An important part of setting up your Equity I+ is deciding where tolocate it. Whether you use your computer at home or in the office, you needto find a comfortable, convenient location.
Choose a location that provides the following:A large, sturdy desk or table. Make sure it can easily support the weightof your system, including all its components.
A flat, hard surface. Soft surfaces like beds and carpeted floors attractstatic electricity, which erases data on your diskettes and can damage thecomputer’s circuitry. Soft surfaces also prevent proper ventilation.
Good air circulation. Air must be able to circulate freely under the sys-tem as well as behind it. Leave several inches of space around the com-puter to allow ventilation.
Moderate environmental conditions. You need to protect your com-puter from extremes in temperature, humidity, dust, and smoke. Avoiddirect sunlight or any other type of heat. High humidity also hindersoperation, so select a cool, dry area. Because you can’t risk losing datastored on disk, do not expose your computer to dust and smoke whichcan damage disks and disk drives.
Appropriate power sources. To prevent static charges, connect all yourequipment to three-prong, 120-volt grounded outlets. You need one out-let for the main unit, one for the monitor, and additional outlets for yourprinter and any other peripherals. The auxiliary power outlet on therear panel of the Equity I+ reduces the number of wall outlets you need.
1-2l No electromagnetic interference. Locate your system away from anyelectrical device that generates an electromagnetic field. Surprisingly,even your telephone can cause problems, especially if you keep diskettesright next to it.
When you find the ideal location for your Equity I+, you can start to setup your system.
Arranging the Components
First decide how you want to arrange your system components. Themost common setup, shown in Figure 1-1, is to lay the main unit flat and setthe video monitor on top of it with the keyboard directly in front (leavingenough space to insert diskettes into the disk drives).
Figure 1-1. System arrangement
Of course, if you have special computer furniture or want to customizeyour setup, you can arrange your Equity I+ components to suit your ownparticular needs.
1-3Before you connect the cables, take a look at the rear and front panels ofthe main unit.
The rear panel
Look at the rear panel to identify the Equity I+ input/output ports.
Figure 1-2 shows where you connect the peripheral devices.
WARNING: Do not connect the power cord until you have con-nected all peripheral devices. Always check to seethat the power switch is off before you connect ordisconnect any peripherals.
Figure 1-2. Rear panel
Here are brief descriptions of each of the ports:l AC power outlet. Auxiliary power outlet. Some monitors (and othertypes of peripherals) can be plugged into the main unit here, instead of awall outlet. The main unit’s power switch controls the monitor orperipheral connected to this outlet. Power consumption should notexceed 80 watts.l AC power inlet. Supplies electrical power to the computer. Always turnthe power switch off before you plug the power cord into an outlet.
1-4RS-232C serial port. Allows you to connect a peripheral with a serialinterface, such as a modem, another computer or a printer.
Parallel port. Allows you to connect a peripheral with a parallel inter-face, such as a printer or plotter.
Option card access slots. The Equity I+ has space for five option cards
(which control your peripherals). One of these slots is occupied by eitheryour monochrome or color/graphics video card. You can use the otherfour to add special devices such as a modem or hard disk controller.
The front panel
Now take a look at the front panel. The components on the front panelare shown in Figure 1-3 with the covers open to show the switches and thekeyboard cable socket. To open each cover, press down gently on the smallhandle.
Figure 1-3. Front panel
The front panel components work as follows:l Disk lock/release button. Press to lock a diskette in place. Press again toeject it.l Disk drive LED lamps. A light indicates that the drive is being accessed.
1-5 •

Slot for optional disk drives. You can install a second floppy disk drive ora hard disk drive in this optional slot. All Equity I+ units come with atleast one floppy disk drive. The main unit above is shown with a secondfloppy disk drive.
Power LED lamp. When the light is red the power is on and the system isrunning at 4.77MHz. When the light is green the system is on and run-ning at IOMHz.
Power switch. Turns the main unit on and off.
Keyboard cable socket. The keyboard plugs into the main unit here.
RESET button. Press this button to reset the computer. When an oper-ating system diskette is in the top drive or running on the hard disk, youcan press the RESET button to reboot it.
DIP switches. These give the computer information about its keyboard,coprocessor status, memory size, monitor type, floppy disk drives, andinterface types. You set them to match your system requirements.
CPU Speed switch. Move this switch left for 4.77MHz or right for
Connecting the Power Cord
Insert the power cord into the AC power inlet on the left side of theback panel, as shown in Figure 1-4. To avoid an electric shock, be sure to plugthis end into the main unit before plugging the other end into the wallsocket. For now, do not plug the power cord into an electrical outlet.
Figure 1-4. herring the power cord
Connecting the Video Monitor
To connect the video monitor, place it on top of or near the
Equity I+ main unit. It is easiest to connect the monitor cable if the backs ofthe monitor and the main unit are facing you.
Note: Your dealer probably installed a video card in your main unit tocontrol your monitor. If not, you need to install it before you canconnect your monitor. See Chapter 3 for installation instructions.
The way you connect your monitor depends on the type you have.
Refer to your monitor manual or follow these guidelines:1. If necessary, connect the video monitor cable to your monitor. Somecables are permanently attached to the monitor at one end.
2. Connect the appropriate end of the video monitor cable to your mono-chrome or color/graphics card connector at the back of the main unit,as shown in Figure 1-5. If the plug has retaining screws, tighten themwith a screwdriver.
Figure 1-5. Connecting the monitor cable
The monitor type must match the video card in the main unit. If youhave a color card, you can use either a nine-pin female D-connector for
RGB monitors or an RCA connector for composite video monitors.
Consult Table 1-1 to make sure your card and monitor match. Be sure toset the switches on the video card to match your monitor.
1-7Table 1-1. Monitor/video curd compatibility
Color or
Enhanced color
Video card output type
Monochrome or graphics One 9-pin output (TTLor enhanced graphicscompatible)
Graphics or color graphics One 9-pin RGB output, or oneor enhanced graphics RCA-type jack for compositevideo
Plug the monitor’s power cable first into the power inlet on the monitorand then into an electrical outlet. If a monochrome monitor has theproper type of plug, you can plug it into the auxiliary outlet next to thepower inlet at the back of the main unit. The monitor’s power consump-tion must not be more than 80 watts.
When you check the DIP switch settings, as defined later in this chapter,be sure they are set correctly for the type of monitor you have.
If you have trouble getting a display, check that the brightness and con-trast controls on the monitor are set correctly. Monitors usually havetheir own power switches. Make sure the power switch is on.
Connecting the Keyboard
Follow these steps to connect the keyboard:1. Open the cover at the lower right front corner of the main unit, asshown in Figure 1-6.
Figure 1-6. Opening the keyboard socket cover
1-82. Insert the keyboard connector as shown in Figure 1-7. Do not force theconnector, but make sure you insert it all the way. See that the cable exitsto the right of the main unit.
Figure 1-7. Connecting the cable to the main unit
3. Gently push the cable into the retaining clip, and close the cover.
You can use the keyboard at different angles such as laying it flat on adesk or placing it on your lap. You can also tilt the keyboard by adjusting thelegs on the bottom. Adjust the keyboard legs by turning the keyboard over,reaching under the lip and pulling each of the legs upward until they lockinto place, as shown in Figure 1-8.
1-9Figure 1-8. Adjusting the keyboard legs
To lower the legs, gently squeeze the sides until they move out of the slotand push down on the leg until it clicks into place.
To disconnect the keyboard, open the cover on the main unit and pressdown on the retaining clip to release the cable. Lift the tab on the connector,and pull it straight out from the main unit.
Connecting the Printer
Your Equity I+ has both serial and parallel built-in interfaces. Youcan easily connect a printer or plotter that has either a serial or parallelinterface. Just follow the instructions below.
Parallel interface
The parallel connector on the Equity I+ is a Centronic

-compatibleinterface with a DB-25 socket. Most Epson printers have a parallel interface.
1-10To connect your printer to a parallel interface:1. Place the printer in a convenient location next to your system, as shownin Figure 1-9 for example.
Figure 1-9. Locating the printer
Before connecting any cables, make sure the power switches on both themain unit and the monitor are switched off, If you are not sure whichcable you need, consult your dealer.
One end of the printer cable has a 25-pin male D-connector. (Refer toyour printer manual to determine which end this is.) Connect this endto the socket marked PARALLEL on the back panel of the main unit. Ifthe plug has retaining screws, tighten them with a small screwdriver.
Connect the other end of the cable to the printer. To secure the cable,tighten the squeeze locks at each side of the printer port and into theconnectors on each side of the cable as shown in Figure 1-10.
1-11Figure 1- 10. Connecting the printer
5. Plug the printer’s power cable into a separate electrical outlet.
Serial interface
If you have a printer (or other peripheral, such as a modem) with a serialinterface, connect it to the port marked SERIAL (RS-232C) at the back ofthe main unit. If the cable is a non-standard type, with a male D-connectorat both ends, you need an adapter to connect it to the computer. To connectyour serial device, follow the same steps above for connecting a paralleldevice.
The RS-232C serial port needs to be configured properly in order for itto function correctly. The printer output must also be redirected to the serialport instead of the parallel port. Use the MS-DOS SETMODE utility (or the
MODE command) to make these changes. See your MS-DOS manual forinstructions.
The Equity I+ character set
The Equity I+ uses a special character set that assigns graphics and inter-national characters to some of the ASCII codes. In most cases, if you try toprint these characters on a standard printer, you get italic characters instead.
Many Epson printers support the IBM character set (like those used on the
Equity I+) as a standard feature, and other printers can be adapted. In addi-tion, some application programs print the special graphics characters on astandard printer using a special printer driver program. Ask your dealer formore information.
Setting the DIP Switches
The DIP switches on the Equity I+ are set to provide your systemwith information about itself. Each time you turn on your system, it checksthe DIP switch settings to determine the keyboard type, coprocessor status,memory size, monitor type, number of floppy disk drives, and the typo ofinterfaces being used. The DIP switches are located underneath the cover onthe front of your main unit, below the disk drives, as shown in Figure 1-11.
Figure 1-11. Location of DIP switches
Your Epson dealer should have set these switches for you. However, readthis section to be sure the settings match your system configuration. If youupgrade your computer later (by adding a hard disk drive for example) youmay need to alter the DIP switch settings.
Note: Set the DIP switches only while your computer is off. Software pro-grams check the settings each time you turn on the system, so do notchange the settings while a program is running.
The Equity I+ has two sets of DIP switches; set 1 contains eight switcheswhich control the computer’s internal operations, and set 2 contains fourswitches which control the parallel and serial ports. A label inside the DIPswitch cover show; the functions of each DIP switch and the factory settings.
See Figure 1-12.
1-13SWITCH I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SWITCH II 1 2 3 4
Figure 1-12. DIP switch label
When a switch is up, it is on. When a switch is down, it is off. To changea setting, use a hard, thin object, such as a small screwdriver.
DIP switch set 1 (internal operations)
The system functions controlled by each switch in set 1 are listed in
Table 1-2 and described below.
Table 1-2. DIP switch set 1
1 2
3 4 5 6 7 8
Keyboard type Enhanced
Not installed ON
Monitor and Color(40X25) OFF ONadapter type
Color(80X25) ON OFF
Enhanced ON
Number of 1
ON ONfloppy disk
2 OFF ONdrives
1-14Switch 1 (keyboard)-tells your computer what kind of keyboard is attachedto your system. The factory setting is off for the standard (enhanced) keyboard which comes with your Equity I+.
Switch 2 (coprocessor)-tells your computer whether or not an optional mathcoprocessor is installed. The factory setting is on to tell the system that thisoption has not been installed.
Switches 3 and 4 (memory size)-indicate how much built-in memory is avail-able. These switches should never be changed unless you install a memorycard and you want to use part of the optional memory instead of the built-inmain memory.
The system always checks the amount of available memory each time it isreset. Problems may occur if the switch settings do not agree with theamount of main memory in use.
Switches 5 and 6 (monitor type)--define what type of video card and monitoryou are using and help the system address the adapter memory correctly. Setthese switches as follows:l If you have a monochrome monitor and video card, set both switches
Off.l If you have an enhanced graphics adapter set both switches on, no mat-ter what type of monitor you have.l If you have a color graphics adapter and an RGB monitor, set switch 5on and switch 6 off.l If you are using a composite video monitor, and its resolution is poor,you may want to set switch 5 off and switch 6 on. This selects 40-columntext mode for your screen and improves the resolution.
Switches 7 and 8 (floppy disk drive&indicate how many floppy disk drivesyour system has. These switches are very important and should be set asfollows:l If you have a single drive, set both switches on so the operating systemknows that it must provide help when disk B: is required.l If you have two floppy disk drives, set switch 7 off and switch 8 on so thelower drive is not ignored.l If you add external floppy disk drives, for a system total of four, setswitches 7 and 8 as indicated in Table 1-2.
1-15DIP switch set 2 (parallel and serial port operations)
The parallel and serial port functions controlled by DIP switch set 2 arelisted in Table 1-3 and described below.
Table 1-3. DIP switch set 2
1 2 3 4
Parallel Primary OFF ON
Secondary OFF OFF
Disable ON ON
Secondary ON OFF
Disable — ON
Switches 1, 2, 3, and 4 tell the computer how to access the built-in paralleland serial ports. You do not need to change the factory settings unless youinstall an option card with an additional parallel or serial port. If you doinstall such an option card, read the following information carefully.
Switches 1 and 2 (parallel port)-tell the computer how to access the built-inparallel port.
The built-in parallel port functions as either the primary or secondaryparallel port. However, if you install any option card with its own parallelport, you must set these two DIP switches so there is no conflict between thebuilt-in parallel port and the added card. Table 1-3 shows you how to set the
DIP switches.
If you install an option card that has only a parallel port, you mustdesignate this as the secondary port and leave the built-in port as the pri-mary port.
If you install a video card with a parallel port (such as an IBM mono-chrome display and printer adapter) you must designate it as the primaryparallel port and the built-in port becomes the secondary parallel port.
If you install two option cards with parallel ports, one is designated asthe primary port and the other as the secondary port. In this case, you needto set switches 1 and 2 on in order to disable the built-in port.
If MS-DOS searches the system for a parallel port and finds only one, itnames it LPTl:. If there are two parallel ports, it names the primary port
LPTl: and the secondary LPT2:.
1-16Switches 3 and 4 (serial port)-tell the computer how to access the built-inserial port.
The built-in serial port functions as either the primary or secondaryserial port. However, if you install any option card with its own serial portyou must set these two DIP switches so there is no conflict between the built-in serial port and the added card. Table 1-3 shows how to set the DIPswitches.
If you install an option card with a serial port preset as primary by themanufacturer, you must designate it as the primary port and designate thebuilt-in port as the secondary port.
If you install an option card or peripheral with a serial port not pre-setyou must designate it as the secondary serial port and the built-in port as theprimary serial port.
If you install two option cards with serial ports, one is designated as theprimary port and the other as the secondary port. In this case you need to setswitch 4 on to disable the built-in port.
If MS-DOS searches the system for a serial port and finds only one, itnames it COM1:. If there are two serial ports, it names the primary port
COMl: and the secondary COM2:.
Turning On the Computer
After you set up your system, you’re ready to turn on the power andstart using your Equity I+. But before you do turn it on, read the followingsafety rules.
Safety rules
1. Never turn the computer on or off with a disk drive protector sheet inthe disk drive.
Do not attempt to dismantle any part of the computer. Only remove thetop cover to install and remove option cards. If there is a hardwareproblem you cannot solve after reading Chapter 4 on troubleshooting,or if you want to install an optional 8087 math coprocessor, consult your
Epson dealer.
To install or remove option cards, always turn off the power, disconnectthe main power cord, and wait for a few minutes before removing thecover from the computer.
Do not unplug cables from the computer while the power switch is on.
Never turn off or reset the computer when one of the drive lamps is on.
This can destroy data stored on a disk or make a whole disk unusable.
Always wait at least five seconds after you switch the power off beforeswitching it on again. Turning it off and on rapidly can damage thecomputer’s circuitry.
Never leave a beverage on top of, or next to, your system or any of itscomponents. Spilled liquid damages the circuitry of your components.
Now you are ready to turn on your system. It’s a good idea to turn onthe monitor and any peripheral devices before you turn on the main unit.
First, make sure the power cord is plugged into the power inlet on theback panel of the main unit. Then plug the power cord into a three-prong,
120-volt, grounded electrical outlet. Turn on the monitor so you can see themessages that appear as your computer starts up. If you have a printer orother peripheral device, turn it on next.
1-18You can turn on your computer with or without a system diskette in thetop disk drive. For now, leave the drive empty. When you are ready to turnon the computer, press the power switch at the upper-right corner once. Thepower indicator on the front panel lights up and the cooling fan inside themain unit starts. After a few seconds, the computer begins to perform aninternal test.
If you cannot see the screen display clearly, use the controls on yourmonitor to adjust the brightness and contrast until characters on the screenare clear and bright. If the display is not stable, check your monitor’s hori-zontal and vertical hold controls.
Initial setup procedure
If this is the first time your Equity I+ has been used, you need to use thediagnostics diskette to perform an initial setup. This is a simple procedurewhich you must do at least once. You may need to do it again if you changeyour system time or date or serial port options. See your Diagnostics manualfor instructions.
Initial screen display
After the computer completes its self test, a message tells you how much
RAM (random access memory) is available, for example:640KB OK
Then the following message displays:Non-system disk or disk error
Insert system diskette in drive A:and strike any key when ready.
This tells you that the computer can now load an operating system from adiskette in the top drive. The Equity I+ needs a disk operating system (DOS)to function. It comes with MS-DOS version 3.2. If you want to use anotheroperating system, consult your Epson dealer.
To load an operating system, insert the system diskette you want to use
(see “Inserting and removing diskettes” in Chapter 2). Refer to your
MS-DOS (or other operating system) manual for details on how to use thesystem.
Note: Use only a backup copy of the system diskette for daily use and keepthe original in a safe place. See your MS-DOS manual to find outhow to make a backup copy.
1-19If your system has a hard disk, you need to prepare it before you can runan operating system on it. Refer to “Using a hard disk drive” in Chapter 2
(and to your Diagnostics and MS-DOS manuals) for instructions on how toprepare a hard disk for use.
If your hard disk has been properly prepared and set up to automaticallyboot MS-DOS, the message above does not appear. Instead, the operatingsystem loads when you turn on the computer. The date and time promptsdisplay and then the system prompt:C>
This indicates that the hard disk has been assigned as drive C.
1-20Chapter 2
Using Your Equity I+
Once you have set up your Equity I+, you’re ready to take advantage ofits versatility. This chapter describes the special keys on the keyboard, how tochange your computer’s operating speed, and how to reset and turn off yourcomputer. It also explains how to use and care for your disks and disk drives.
Special Keys
Certain keys serve special functions and are used in various ways byapplication programs. Some of the more important keys are shown in Figure
2-1. Table 2-1 describes each of these keys as well as others with specialfunctions.
Figure 2-1. Equity I+ keyboard
2-1Table 2-1. Special key functions
Tab Moves the cursor to the right in normal mode (and tothe left in shift mode in some application programs).
Caps Lock Changes the letter keys from lower- to uppercase;changes back to lowercase when pressed again.
Shift Produces uppercase characters or symbols when usedwith the main character keys. Produces lowercasecharacters when Caps Lock is on.
Ctrl Works with other keys to perform special (control)functions, such as editing operations in MS-DOS and
Alt Works with other keys to enter alternate charactercodes not otherwise available on a standard keyboard.
Backspace Moves the cursor back one space, deleting thecharacter to the left.
Enter Ends a line of keyboard input or executes a command.
Insert (Ins) Turns insert function on and off.
Delete (Del) Deletes characters to the right.
Home, End, Within application programs, control cursor location.
Page Up (Pg Up),
Page Down (Pg Dn)
Num Lock Changes the function of the numeric/cursor keys fromnumeric to cursor positioning; changes when pressedagain.
Esc Cancels the current command line or operation.
F1 - F12 Perform special functions within application programs.
Print Screen Prints the screen display on a line printer.
(Prt SC )
Scroll Lock Controls scrolling in some applications.
Pause Suspends current operation.
The Num Lock, Scroll Lock, and Caps Lock keys work as toggleswhen you press them. When the function is enabled, the corresponding lighton the upper-right corner of the keyboard is on. When the function isdisabled, the light is off.
Selecting Execution Speed
The Equity I+ can operate at two execution speeds: 4.77MHz or 10
MHz. The first speed is IBM compatible. At the second and faster speed the
Equity I+ simply performs all tasks faster. You can select the slower speed torun application programs that have specific timing requirements.
2-2To change the speed, move the switch on the front panel as shown in
Figure 2-2. To run the computer at 4.77MHz, move the switch to the left. Torun it at 10 MHz, move the switch to the right. You can do this at any timewithout rebooting the system.
Figure 2-2. Speed switch
The power light on the front panel is red when the computer is runningat 4.77MHz and green when it is running at 10MHz.
Resetting the Computer
You may occasionally need to reset the computer, either to load a differ-ent operating system, or because a program has failed and the computer doesnot respond to your keyboard commands. However, resetting the computercauses all data in the computer’s temporary memory (RAM) to be lost, so ifyou have a problem, you should reset the computer only as a last resort.
WARNING: Do not reset the computer to exit a program unlessyou have to. Some application programs classify andstore new data whenever you exit the program properly. If you reset the computer while such a programis running, you may lose data.
2-3There are three ways to reset; you should use them in this order:1. If you are using MS-DOS, press Ctrl and Alt together with the Del keyon the numeric keypad at the right of the keyboard. The screen goesblank for a moment, and any system disk in drive A reloads. If theproblem is not corrected after trying this, try the second method.
2. Press the RESET button under the hinged flap beneath the disk drives.
This method works even when the keyboard is not responding. If thisfails to have any effect, try the third method.
3. Remove any diskettes from the disk drives. Turn off the monitor andany peripherals, and then switch the Equity I+ off. Wait for five seconds,then switch the power back on.
Turning Off the Computer
Before you turn off your computer, save your data, exit the program youare using, and remove all diskettes from the disk drives. Turn off the monitorand peripherals and then turn off the main unit, using the switch on thefront panel.
Using Disks and Disk Drives
The disk drives in your computer let you store your work and programson removable diskettes for future use. All Equity I+ systems have at least onedisk drive; others may also have a hard disk drive, either built-in or as anexternal unit.
This section gives you some background information on how disks workand tells you how to:l Choose floppy disks (diskettes)l Care for your disks and disk drivesl Insert and remove diskettesl Write-protect your datal Make backup copiesl Use a single floppy disk drivel Use a hard disk drive.
2-4How disks work
The floppy disks (diskettes) you insert in your system’s floppy disk drivesare round pieces of flexible plastic coated with magnetic material andenclosed in protective jackets. Like a record, a diskette has circular tracks onboth sides. The computer stores the data you enter as magnetic patterns onthese circular tracks.
A small read/write head in the disk drive interprets the magnetic pat-terns. When a diskette is in a drive, the read/write head is right over thelarge oval hole in the diskette jacket. This hole allows the read/write head toaccess the diskette when you store, retrieve, and delete data.
Unlike a floppy disk, a hard disk is rigid and fixed in place. It is sealed ina protective environment free of dust and dirt, so you cannot see it. A harddisk stores data the same way as a floppy disk, only it works faster and has amuch larger storage capacity.
Because data is stored magnetically, you can retrieve it, record over it,and erase it - just as you play, record, and erase music on cassette tapes.
Choosing diskettes for the Equity I+
The standard floppy disk drive on the Equity I+ uses double-sided,double-density, 48 TPI (tracks per inch) diskettes. These disks are compatiblewith those used for the IBM PC. You can use diskettes prepared and usedwith one IBM-compatible computer on the other.
For best results, use only high-quality diskettes with reinforced hubrings-the added reliability is well worth the extra cost. Be sure to selectdiskettes that are double-sided, double-density. Each diskette can hold
360KB of data, the equivalent of about 150 pages of text.
If you have an optional floppy disk drive that has a capacity of 720KB,use 31/2”, double-sided, highdensity, 135 TI’I diskettes. Each high-densitydiskette holds 720KB of data, approximately 300 pages of text.
Caring for your disks and disk drives
To avoid damaging diskettes and hard disks, you need to care for themproperly. Follow these basic precautions to avoid losing data:l Keep disks away from dust and dirt. Small particles of dust or dirtscratch the magnetic surface (destroying data). Dust can also ruin theread/write head in the disk drive.
Keep disks away from magnetic fields. (Remember that disks store theirinformation magnetically) There are many sources of magnetism in andaround your home or office, such as electrical appliances and tele-phones, and particularly loudspeakers.
Keep disks in a moderate environment. They work best at normal room-temperature and humidity conditions. Never leave them sitting in thesun, or in extreme cold or heat. The temperature inside a car in themiddle of summer or winter can cause severe damage.
Never touch the diskette’s magnetic surface. The oils on your fingertipscan damage the surface of the disk. Always hold disks by their protectivejackets. On a 720KB diskette, do not expose the diskette’s surface bysliding the metal plate.
Store diskettes properly. Keep them in their protective envelopes whenthey are not in use, and store them in a diskette container.
Do not place anything on top of your disks. They bend easily and do notrotate properly in their sleeves if they are damaged.
Never wipe, brush, or try to clean diskettes in any way.
Be careful when you label your diskettes. Attach labels firmly but gently,and only along the top of the disk (next to the manufacturer’s label).
Avoid placing several labels on top of one other. They may prevent thediskette from spinning freely in the disk drive.
It is best to write on the label before placing it on the disk. Use only soft-tip pens, not ballpoint pens or pencils, to write on a label that is alreadyattached to a disk.
Do not remove a diskette or turn off the computer while the drive light ison. This light indicates that the computer is copying data to or from adisk. If you interrupt this process, you can destroy data.
Remove all diskettes before you turn off the computer.
If you have a hard disk drive, you should also take these additional precau-tions:l Never turn off the power to the computer when the hard disk LED lampis on. This LED indicates that the computer is in the middle of readingfrom or writing to the disk. If you interrupt this process, you can losedata.
2-6l Never attempt to open the hard disk unit. The disk itself is enclosed inan air-tight container to protect it from dust.l If you plan to move the hard disk unit, the read/write head must bemoved away from the disk recording area. The MS-DOS program toprotect the read/write head is HDSIT. Refer to your Diagnostics or
MS-DOS manual for details.
Inserting and removing diskettes
To insert a diskette into a disk drive, hold it with the label face up andthe write-protect notch to the left (so that the read/write slot is away fromyou). Then slide it into the disk drive as shown in Figure 2-3. Be careful notto force the diskette into the slot. When it is all the way in, push in the disklock/release button to secure the diskette in the drive. This enables theread/write heads to access the diskette.
Figure 2-3. Inserting diskettes
To remove the diskette, press the button again. As you release it, thelabelled edge of the diskette pops out. Carefully pull out the diskette, place itin its protective envelope and store it properly,
2-7Note: You need to format your blank diskettes before you can use themwith your operating system. Refer to your MS-DOS or other operat-ing system manual for instructions on how to format your blankdiskettes.
There are two ways to avoid losing the valuable information stored onyour disks; write-protect your diskettes and make backup copies. Both ofthese methods are described below.
Write-protecting diskettes
You can write-protect a diskette to prevent its data from being altered.
When a dikette is write-protected, you can copy data from it, but you cannotstore new data on the diskette or delete any files it contains. If you try tochange data stored on a write-protected diskette, an error message displays.
To write-protect a 5%” diskette, cover the small, rectangular notch-shown in Figure 2-4, with an adhesive write-protect tab. Write-protect tabsusually come with new 5%” diskettes when you buy them.
Figure 2-4. Write-protect notch
To unwrite-protect a 5¼” diskette, remove the write-protect tab.
On a 3½” diskette, the write-protect device is a small switch on thelower-right corner on the back, shown in Figure 2-5. To write-protect thisdiskette, slide the switch down toward the edge, of the diskette so there is ahole where the switch used to be.
2-8Figure 2-5. Write-protect switch
To unwrite-protect a 3½” diskette, move the switch up toward the centerof the diskette so the hole is covered.
Making backup copies
It is a good idea to make copies of all your important data and programdiskettes. With program diskettes, or the system master diskette suppliedwith your Equity I+, you should use backup copies, and keep the originals ina safe place-away from your working disks. Copy your data disks regularly
(preferably daily), and keep them apart from the originals.
Your MS-DOS manual describes how to make a backup of your
MS-DOS system disk. To make regular backups of other MS-DOS disks, usethe DU (Disk Utility) program or the DISKCOPY command.
“Using a hard disk drive,” below, gives more information on how toback up hard disks.
Using a single floppy disk drive
Some Equity I+ systems have only one floppy disk drive. For the com-puter to function correctly, it needs to know how many floppy disk drives ithas. DIP switches 1-7 and 1-8 tell the computer how many disk drives it has.
If your computer has only one drive, set both switches on. If it has two floppydisk drives, set switch 1-7 off and switch 1-8 on.
2-9An operating system expects the computer to have at least two physicaldisk drives. MS-DOS recognizes drives A and B for two floppy disk drives, or
A and C for a floppy and a hard disk drive. Some operations, such as copy-ing files from one disk to another, require two drives. With MS-DOS, if youhave only one physical disk drive, the operating system lets you treat it logi-cally as two drives.
For example, if you give a command to copy from drive A to drive B,
MS-DOS copies from the first diskette you place in the drive (A) to thecomputer’s memory. Then it prompts you to insert the disk for drive B. Itcopies from memory to the B disk you place in the drive. When the copy iscomplete, the screen prompts you to reinsert the original diskette in drive A.
You may be swapping diskettes this way quite often, and it is easy toforget which disk is which. To avoid accidentally losing your data, here is atip for keeping the disks straight: always hold the disk for drive A in your lefthand and the disk for drive B in your right. Another way to avoid writing onthe wrong disk is to write-protect your source disk. This allows you to readinformation, but not write over it.
For more information on using a single floppy disk drive with MS-DOS,see your MS-DOS manual.
Using a hard disk drive
The Epson hard disk for Equity I+ has a capacity of 20 megabytes-about 20 million characters. This is equivalent to around 60 floppy disks.
Using the hard disk greatly reduces the number of floppy disks you need andeliminates much of the disk-swapping you have to do. You can do almost allyour work on the hard disk and copy your files to diskette as needed (tomake backups, for example).
Although it has a lot of storage space, you should keep only the files youuse regularly on the hard disk, to make sure you always have plenty of spaceavailable. Store your other files on diskette (you can use the ARCHIVEutility or BACKUP command in MS-DOS to back up your hard disk files).
It is very important to back up all your hard disk files on floppy disks. Thehard disk is very reliable, but you should always have backup copies in caseyou lose any of your data from the hard disk.
You need to prepare your hard disk before you can use it. If you are usinga hard disk other than Epson’s, follow the preparation instructions providedwith your hard disk.
2-10Before you use the Epson internal hard disk, you must do the followingthings to prepare it:l Use the Format Hard Disk program on your diagnostics diskette toformat the hard disk.l Partition the hard disk to run the MS-DOS operating system using the
MS-DOS program FDISK.l Format the MS-DOS partition with the MS-DOS program SELECT.l Copy the MS-DOS utility programs to the hard disk using SELECT
For instructions on running the diagnostics program, see your Diagnos-tics manual. For instructions on how to use the MS-DOS programs, refer toyour MS-DOS manual. If you plan to use an operating system other than
MS-DOS, you also need to use that operating system to partition the harddisk and copy the system files to it.
Note: Your MS-DOS manual states that you need to run the Setup pro-gram on the diagnostics diskette before you format the hard disk, butyou do not do this on the Equity I+.
2-11Chapter 3
Installing Option Cards
Option cards are accessories you can add to your Equity I+ to provideextra system capabilities. For example, you may want to install a memoryexpansion card or an auto-dial modem.
You can install up to five option cards in the Equity I+ at one time, butone position is always occupied by the video card that operates your moni-tor.
Option cards are available from Epson as well as other vendors. In addi-tion, multifunction boards (available from other vendors) allow you to addother features without using additional slots. Consult your Epson dealer formore information.
Before you install an option card in your main unit, you need to removethe cover from your Equity I+.
This chapter describes how to:l Remove and replace the main unit’s coverl Install and remove an option card.
Removing the Cover
WARNING: Never open the case of the Equity I+ while it isplugged into an electrical outlet. Turn off the powerswitch to the main unit and any other peripheraldevices connected to it, wait for a few minutes, thenunplug the power cable before removing the case.
1. If the monitor is on top of the computer, disconnect it and move it toone side. Disconnect the keyboard and set it out of the way too. Turnthe main unit around so that the back panel faces you.
3-12. The back panel is secured with three screws as shown in Figure 3-1.
Remove the screws and put them to one side. Slip the back panel off themain unit.
Figure 3-1. Back panel screws
The top cover is secured by two screws on each side of the computer asshown in Figure 3-2. The two screws on the left side of the unit arecovered by small plastic inserts. Gently remove the inserts with a smallscrewdriver, then remove the screws on both sides of the computer. Putthe screws and inserts safely to one side.
Figure 3-2. Side screws under plastic inserts
3-24. Tilt the cover up slightly from the back and pull it toward you and awayfrom the main unit, as shown in Figure 3-3. Set the cover aside for now.
Figure 3-3. Removing cover
Inserting the Option Card
The video card must be placed in the 4th slot. Figure 3-1 shows the cor-rect placement of a video card. Most other option cards can be placed intoany of the four remaining option slots, but some cards may need to be in-stalled in a specific slot. Check the option card manual to find out if theoption card has to be in a specific slot.
Even though option cards are designed to fit only one way, it is a goodidea to examine the card first and follow the instructions closely.
1. Determine which option slot you are going to use, then remove theretaining screw and washer from the metal cover plate at the back of theslot. Lift out the metal cover and put it in a safe place in case you laterremove the option card. Keep the screw and washer to secure the optioncard to the computer.
2. Unpack the option card and read all instructions that come with it.
Then adjust any switches or jumper connections that are necessary.
3-3Note: Pay specific attention to the warnings in your option cardinstructions. Some devices have delicate CMOS chips youshould not touch.
When you handle the card, be careful not to touch any of the contactson the circuit board, especially along the gold edge connections. If youneed to put it down before installing it, place it with the component sidefacing down on top of the original packing. Keep the card’s originalpacking materials in case you remove the card later.
3. Grip the card firmly by the top corners. The contact pins should bepointing down and the components should face toward the inside of themain unit.
4. Insert the card straight down into the slot as shown in Figure 3-4. Placethe tab at the bottom of the retaining bracket into the correspondingnotch at the back of the computer.
Figure 3-4. Inserting option card
5. Once the connector pins are sitting in the connector slot, push downfirmly (but carefully) to fully insert the card. If the connector does notseem to be going in smoothly, do not force it; pull it all the way out andtry again. Be sure to keep it straight.
3-46. Secure the retaining bracket to the frame of the computer with the smallscrew and washer. Also replace the ground screw if there is one. The freeend of long option cards is held in position by a piece of foam inside thetop of the main unit lid and by the card bracket on the inside of the frontpanel.
Removing an access slot cover
Some option cards, such as your video monitor card, have an outlet forconnecting an external device. If you install an option card that has an exter-nal connector for other equipment, (your video monitor, for example), youneed to remove the metal access slot cover on the computer’s back panel thatcorresponds to the option card slot. Follow these steps:1. Hold the back panel of the computer with the inside facing you. Theindividual access slot covers are held in position by a tab at the bottomand a clip at the top.
2. Remove the appropriate cover by pushing down on the clip and pushingout. See Figure 3-5. Save the cover in case you need to remove theoption card.
Figure 3-5. Removing access slot cover
3-5Replacing the Cover
With the option card properly installed or removed, the last step is toreplace the cover of the main unit:1. With the back of the main unit facing you, position the cover over thecomputer with the side feet to the left of the main unit and the front edgepointing slightly downward.
2. Lower the cover onto the bottom half of the case, as shown in Figure
3-6, making sure that the bottom edges fit inside the case. At the sametime, slide the front edge beneath the top edge of the front panel. Finally,lower the back of the cover so that it is in position.
Figure 3-6. Replacing the cover
3. Secure the cover by replacing the screws on both sides of the main unit.
Snap the plastic inserts into the side feet.
4. Replace the back panel and the three screws along the top edge.
5. Return the computer to its original position and reconnect it to themonitor, the keyboard, and any other peripherals you have.
6. Check to make sure the power switch is off. Reconnect the power cableto the back of the main unit and to an electrical outlet. Change the DIPswitches if necessary.
3-6Post-installation Setup
After you install an option card (and replace the main unit’s cover andreconnect the power cord and peripherals), you may need to change your
DIP switches to update the configuration information. For example, if youadd a floppy disk drive, you need to change switches 1-7 and 1-8 so thecomputer knows it has the additional drive.
You may also need to add some commands in the configuration files onyour system disk as well. See your MS-DOS manual for instructions.
When you finish installing an option card and reconfiguring the system,you should test the option if possible. Some option cards come with theirown diagnostic test programs, and you can test others with your diagnosticsdiskette. These tests include:l Expansion memoryl 8087 math coprocessorl Serial and parallel portsl Monitors and display adaptersl Disk drives.
See your Diagnostics manual for instructions.
Removing Option Cards
To remove an option card, first turn off the computer and unplug thepower cord, then detach any cable connected to the card. Disconnect themonitor and keyboard, and remove the main unit cover. Then follow theoption card installation instructions in reverse.
Follow the same safety instructions and make sure you pull the cardstraight up and out of the connector to avoid damaging it. Rewrap the card
(preferably with the original packing materials) and place it inside the pack-ing box for safe storage. Replace the metal access slot cover before youreplace the computer’s cover. If the card you removed had an external con-nector you also need to replace the plastic access slot cover on the back of thecomputer. When you have reassembled the unit, remember to reset any DIPswitches if necessary.
3-7Chapter 4
You should not encounter any serious difficulties with the Equity I+, butif anything out of the ordinary does happen, this section should help. Such asituation usually requires nothing more than repeating a software procedure,correcting an operating system error, or resetting the computer.
Most of the minor difficulties you might encounter can be resolved byone of the suggestions below. If none of these solves the problem, consult an
Epson dealer about servicing the computer.
WARNING: If the computer has to be turned off for any reason,always wait at least five seconds before switching itback on. Turning it off and on rapidly can damagethe computer.
The Computer Fails to Start Up
If the computer does not start up when you press the power switch on,follow these steps to find a solution:1. Check to see if the power indicator on the main unit is lit. If it is not,remove any disks and turn the power off. Wait five seconds and turn thepower back on.
2. If the lamp still does not come on, turn the power switch off. Then checkto see that the power cable is securely connected to the electrical outlet.
Try turning the power switch on again.
3. If this fails, check the electrical outlet. Plug a portable lamp into theoutlet you are using for the computer, and turn it on to see if it suppliespower.
The Video Display Does Not Appear
If the computer starts up but no image appears on the screen, followthese steps to find a solution:1. Check to see that the power indicator on the monitor is lit. If it is not,turn the power off, wait five seconds, then turn the power back on. Waitto see if the display screen appears.
4-12. Use the controls on the monitor to adjust the brightness and contrast.
3. Check DIP switches 1-5 and 1-6 on the front of the main unit to makesure they are set correctly for your monitor.
4. Remove any diskettes, then turn off the monitor and main unit. Checkto see that the monitor power cable is securely connected to the electri-cal outlet, and that the monitor cable is properly connected to both themonitor and the main unit. Turn both power switches on again.
5. With the computer turned off, check the electrical outlet for power. Pluga portable lamp into the outlet you are using for the monitor, and turn iton to see if it supplies power.
The Computer Locks Up or Freezes
If the computer appears to be locked up and does not respond to thekeyboard, try the following:1. Wait a few seconds. Some operations take longer to perform than oth-ers. For example, a spreadsheet program takes longer to recalculate anentire spreadsheet than to simply enter a figure. Also, some BASICprograms that have a lot of calculations to perform can take severalminutes, or even hours, to finish. Be aware of the task the computer isperforming and judge the time period accordingly.
2. If the computer remains locked up, follow the steps in Chapter 2 under
“Resetting the Computer.”
Floppy Disk Problems
There are many kinds of disk problems that could occur, and just asmany reasons for them happening. If


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